Mumbai’s Urban Leopards

by | Oct 6, 2016 | 7 comments

Conservation photography can awe and appal in equal measure. For conservation photographer and naturalist Nayan Khanolkar, the latter emotion was triggered in March 2011, when visuals emerged of a leopard being burnt alive by angry villagers near Corbett Tiger Reserve in north India. A few months later, images splashed across the front pages of India’s newspapers of another stray leopard attacking several policemen and forest guards at a village near Siliguri in West Bengal’s Darjeeling district shocked him and scores of others.

That year also saw the unfolding of the all-so-familiar narrative of leopard attacks in and around the largest national park located within any metropolitan city in the world. When seven-year-old Prakash Salunkhe was killed by a leopard at Aarey Colony on the outskirts of Mumbai’s Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) in 2013, the last such incident reported from the city, public sentiment was against their feline neighbours, thanks to sensationalised reports in the media. Leopards belong to the jungle, and should not enter the city, was the common consensus. With little or no attention being drawn to the increasing encroachment and ghettoisation around SGNP, the possibility that it might not be the leopards that are entering the city, but the city that is overtaking the jungle itself wasn’t fathomed. Misrepresentation of facts coupled with little knowledge of the area’s ecology was disserving the human and leopard cause together.

It was around this time that Nayan realised that long-term monitoring of areas from where these conflicts were being reported was the need of the hour. An initial survey based on conflict history, media reports, infrared camera-trap images, local and forest department officials’ accounts, was undertaken to find out indirect evidence of leopard presence in the form of scat and scrape marks outside the Protected Area of SGNP at Aarey Colony and Film City. Debunking the image of the snarling, apparently dangerous big cats shown on T.V and in newspapers, Nayan and his team used powerful DSLR camera trap imagery to show the quiet, everyday existence of urban leopards. They observed leopard movement, placed camera traps in these locations and waited. It took a few days, and sometimes weeks of uncertainty and perseverance to obtain the images that Nayan had visualised. But the results were well worth the wait, more than capable of conveying the fact that these predators epitomised the adaptability and resilience of the very same Mumbaikars they were trying to convince that conflict is clearly a misnomer in a story essentially about coexistence.

Wildlife biologist Vidya Athreya’s pioneering work in rural Maharashtra discovered that capturing ‘problem’ leopards from farmlands and releasing them in forests was probably the primary cause for attacks. Forest officials, who had trapped leopards outside SGNP and released them in the park, now had an explanation for the spate of attacks in the early 2000s, which had severely jeopardised the leopards’ image as a coexisting neighbour.

Masters of stealth blessed with a sharp memory, these are intelligent animals that will go to great lengths to avoid humans. What were field lessons for the team, are life lessons for tribes such as Warlis and Mahadeo Kolis, who have historically inhabited this landscape. These tribes that depend on the forest have immense respect towards wildlife. It is not uncommon to see leopard paintings and motifs in the houses of Warlis, who worship the large cats and believe that harming the animal would invite bad luck. Such cultural and traditional practices have influenced the tremendous tolerance levels of communities lived in close proximity with wildlife across India and the concrete jungles around SGNP, where the leopard has survived admirably, is no exception.

As the mad race of urbanisation disconnects Mumbaikars from nature, it threatens the future of their urban neighbours. While the buffer between the city and its green lungs diminishes, a cancerous intolerance for straying cats loom. As a medium of communication, conservation photography is a tool like none other, which enters our collective consciousness to convince us of alternative realities. The photographs that you see on this page hope to upturn the visual commentary of ‘leopards and conflict’ to ‘leopards and coexistence’. For it is only when such visuals become the norm, and not the exception, will true urban conservation stories be told.

This article written by Anirudh Nair, Assistant Editor with Sanctuary Asia magazine, is the first in a series documenting Nayan Khanolkar’s ongoing leopard tracking and camera-trapping exercise outside Mumbai’s Sanjay Gandhi National Park. Read the second part of this series Leopards in Mumbai: A conflict history.


  1. Navneet Bhatnagar

    A fantastic article. Shows the pain and the efforts that have gone into taking some unusual photographs of these beautiful animals in very daunting environment.Further getting to photograph any wild animal in an urban setting where people may normally bay for its blood , is an arduous task in itself. Absolutely mesmerizing photographs .

  2. Cynthia

    I’m awestruck. This says volumes not only about the dedication to mastering the necessary photographic skills, but even more importantly to me, it speaks of the wonderful adaptability of animals that makes it possible for humans and animals to live together. A lesson for humans to embrace as we map out our future.

  3. Desh Bhushan Jain - Mob: +91 9322194806

    I had the opportunity to attend your slide show and the lecture you delivered on 18.11.2016 at The Photographic Society of India. The lecture was highly mesmerizing and full of details and data. It was highly eye opener towards the present problem on urban Leopards. Your selfless and dedicated work in photographing the urban leopards is highly commendable and unparalleled. This shows your immense passion for photography. You an inspiration for others.

  4. Jennifer Mooney-Kelly

    We must learn to live with all the wildlife that has to live in our cities,including the rats and foxes in the British urban environment.

  5. Nandan

    Wow your work is excellent sir!

  6. Jatin Patel

    Fantastic Work done by you…..
    Absolutely no compromise in the Quality of your work…..

    Glad to have seen work yesterday @ Sanctuary Advanced photography workshop.

  7. Leonardo Caetano

    I love the tips! I’m currently planning to meet India next month. And I want to know everything about the region before I make my first trip to this country. Thank you for sharing your experience with us:)


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